Architectural theory is the act of thinking, discussing or even writing about architecture. Most modern architectural theories are lectures, dialogues or architectural books. In the early years of the 20th century, there was a large increase in works written by modern architecture as a result of publishing becoming more and more popular. The technological development of modern times has also led to further development in the field of architecture.
During this time, there was almost no development in the field of architecture. Historians argue that there are not many ancient architectures that exist today, and their recorded material is almost nonexistent. During this time, one of the most prominent architectures and theorists is Vitruvius. He participated in texts on Architectura De currently called Ten Architectural Books. This published book is one of the few published works in architecture that survived the ancient period. This publication includes most aspects of Roman empire architecture such as urban planning, materials, decoration and supplies.
In the Middle Ages, architectural knowledge was generally adopted despite the mouth or through the grand architecture of buildings such as buildings and planning time. There are not a few architectural theories that have been developed in this period as a result of the diligence of code.
This period did not encounter much architectural development but the first great works of architecture theory began in this period. This has been combined by placing Vitruvius as the core of the most profound theoretical architecture tradition of modern times.
This period is one of the periods in history with considerable development experience in the term of architecture theory. There have been new archaeological discoveries pushing new interest rates in classical art and architecture. The enlightenment period led to the development of the neoclassical terminology of 18th century architecture. Some of the major architectural theorists during this period were Julien-David Leroy, Abbé Marc-Antoine Laugier, Nicholas Revett.
One of the most influential architectural theorists in neoclassical is Antoine Laugier. His inspiration led to the publication of works similar to American architecture by American sculptor Horatio Greenough. According to The Horatio Greenough, it is not suitable for modern architectural works to continue to imitate old architectural forms. Therefore, he outlined functional relationships between architecture and decoration. The end of the 19th century is characterized by extensive development of theoretical activities. A practical example of this is in England, where Ruskin ideally led to the emergence of the Arts and Crafts movement. This is one of the key factors that led to Art Nouveau’s existence in the modern British era.
In the 20th century, the first important development in architecture was the publication of City Planning Artistic principles by Cammilo Sitte. Despite the method of most modern theorists in architecture, this book is not a direct critic of architecture in the 20th century but is an aesthetic critic of the The urbanization process in the 19th century. This book has had significant influence in modern architecture today and has been revised up to five times. However, the book has been particularly criticized from Le Corbusier the main reason is that Le Corbusier is often cited as a critic of modern architectural movements and architectural movements of the articles.
This is one of the methods implemented by most learning organizations related to architecture. In a more ancient approach to architecture, there was a regular rise in old organic designs. However in a modern scientific setting, modern architectural methods are being developed to enhance this process. One of the pronouns is architecture, which is an imitation that is a clear reproduction of the biological form in today’s modern buildings like buildings. There is also a modern development in the field of architecture that is organic architecture. This can be used to refer to the designs of many organic search structures with the aim of enhancing the attractiveness of structures or structures.
Some other modern developments in architecture are like computational innovation that is a combination of technical advances in architecture. Technology is probably one of the best things to have happened in the field of architecture as it has led to the development of even faster and efficient architectural processes. However, there is a debate about whether calculations are suitable for today’s modern buildings.
Bruno Taut was born in 1880 in a small town of Konigsberg in East Prussia. In his childhood, he became a famous pastel artist and artist. His career in painting did not last long since he decided to pursue a career in architecture. Taut’s career as an architect took place in three stages simultaneously in history. The first stage is characterized by testing of materials and techniques in modern architecture. The second phase is characterized by war and revolution that causes great damage to structures and infrastructure while the third phase is marked by harsh realism.
Bruno bought his first architectural contract in 1933 marking the end of his career in a professional picture. He was then tasked with creating a design that would oversee the upgrading of a farmer’s church. He embarked on this task by using colors previously applied in his context. The use of colored stencils creates an overall effect of creating a peasant landscape about the church. Taut colors have been described as covering for civil society construction.
Bruno’s approach to architecture is the use of colors to bring about aspects of social mental effects on structures (Taut, 1994). Bruno also exhibited many colors to apply environmentally friendly means of building and maintaining architectural structures. This is through the use of Expressionist architecture which is an architectural form that uses fragmentation or conveys emotional violence or overstressed in structure.
Some common features are the Expressionist structures like Taut applied in this structure; distorting the form for an emotional effect, the dependence of realism with a purpose of invoking the style of the inner circle, achieving the initial effect and having a new vision, structure using the creative potential of craftsmanship and conception of architecture as a work of art (Whyte, 1998). According to Bruno, architecture should pose some kind of emotional effect either through color or distortion and fragmentation effects.
According to Bruno, architecture should respond to modern life in such a way that colors should be used to physically and psychologically create a passion of modern architecture. In today’s world, many contemporary architects are now considered great modernities that have expanded the use of colors unlike the previous years where architectural images were published in monochrome. . Bruno’s perception is that architects can change and reflect society by combining architecture and art use of color.
During history, German architects had limited opportunities to build. This led Bruno to focus more on unrealistic architectural design. The result of this is the creation of incredibly great designs to restructure capital and transform the country that was devastated greatly from the war. Some of Bruno’s most famous architectural works include the Monument to the E Eensens (iron monument) built in 1913 with a major goal of adding advertising to the iron industry. The Glasshaus (Glass Pavilion) is Bruno’s other famous work and was opened at the Cologne Wekbund exhibition in 1914.
Le Corbusier was born in 1887 as a small Swiss town of La Chux de Fonds. Corbusier initially liked a career in painting but like Bruno took up architecture. Corbusier held a critical point of view regarding his teacher ‘s theory of the revival of ancient and handmade art. He focused on developing the idea of aesthetics of functional theory and a positive approach of modernity. Corbusier witnessed the beginning of a new era of progress as a result of the end of the war.
The motive behind Crobusier’s new thought was after his first meeting with Paris’s large and complex cities (Baker, 1996). This thus created a need for a modern housing system, modern city. The initial situation in most cities as he observed was very chaotic with unintended traffic systems and disorderly home workers. Corbusier developed Dom-ino’s home concept that was intended to be a cost-effective way of worker housing.
Corbusier developed the theory of elevation of architecture under the assumption that improving housing systems for workers would help improve the poverty among them. According to Corbusier, modern times cannot be done without clearing old and ancient structures. His theory has attempted to relate properly to the city’s planning and the success of the city’s business. During this period, capitalists were described as too immature to realize the value of this theory by way of Corbusier.
The impression of the radiant city of Corbusier is a reflection of the price increase of individual rights and freedom of workers. This impression of the city indicates the reconstruction using modern production methods. The impression of the city radiant in relation to the modern world is that it emphasizes on the services provided to the people. However, this impressive Corbusier personal limit of having a voice in management. If applied today, the city of Radiant will restrict people from acting reasonably so everyone must behave rather than act.
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In history, the world has experienced massive development in urbanization and industrial development. Le Corbusier’s theories focused on finding effective means of housing a large number of people in response to the escalating urban housing crisis (Moos, 2009). He believed that was the end, Modern architectural forms will provide a system of organization in urban and industrial centers thus raising the standard of living of the lower class.
Some of Le Corbusier’s famous works are an attempt to make his impression of Radiant City through a small-scale project of a series of small units around France. The most famous of these units is Unite d ‘Habitation in Marseille. The idea of Radiant city was realized through the construction of the Chandirgh Alliance territory which became the new capital for the Indian states. Le Corbusier designed most of the buildings in this city including administrative buildings, parliaments and courts.
Role of architecture
According to Bruno Taut, Le Corbusier, and Robert Venturi, architecture is basically made up of three phases, namely aesthetics, technology, and social aspects. A more robust designed environment will lead to a more interactive social environment. Three architects agree on the importance of an organized flow of structures and how buildings are designed to implement the social aspects of architecture. The appropriateness of architecture with social interactions related to architecture will reduce the disorganized nature of many systems in the world today.
Despite this, three have different approaches to architecture; They aim to introduce a more organized system to architecture. Bruno Taut introduced the use of colors in architecture as a method of expressing their architecture and principles in a given society. Le Corbusier, on the other hand, seeks to organize an architectural approach involving urban centers. This is the time when the world has experienced massive development in urbanization and industrialization. According to him, the organization of housing systems in urban centers will raise the problem of a disordered system in rapidly developing urban centers.
Robert Venturi’s approach to architecture is architecture so it contains complex and contradictory. This is contrary to previous architectural works that show transparency and vainness. According to Venturi, architecture should attack some kind of passion or show mixed social views and appearance. The overall goal of architecture should be to attack some types of originality and not too obvious.
According to Bruno Taut, Le Corbusier, and Robert Venturi, modern architectures can change and reflect the society in architecture. This can only be achieved by modern architects changing the approach on architecture and bringing in the factor of complexity and contradiction. The works of all the three exhibited these two characteristics indication that architecture should not be just about physical appearance but also the sociological impacts to the society.