Scientific research is a major task of students in universities. One of the manifestations of scientific research is the writing of scientific essays. The scientific thesis is a monograph on a science or technology issue written by a person who aims to:
- Training on scientific research methods and skills;
- Experimental results of a learning period or a matter of scientific interest;
- Public protection before the Council or being marked for a university diploma or master’s degree.
Scientific thesis includes:
- Course essay, Internship harvest: is to report on a subject matter or a practical problem at a certain unit in order to draw conclusions or contribute ideas and propose solutions. to make or improve the issue raised, with a length of no more than 30 pages;
- Graduation thesis or Graduation project: is a synthetic monograph, experimental results after a university training course in the field of social sciences and humanities or technical sciences, is marked well protect for a bachelor’s or engineer’s degree, about 80 pages in length;
- Master’s thesis: is an in-depth monograph on a specific scientific, technological, technical or management issue, demonstrating that students have mastered the learned knowledge, understand the research and skilled methods practice research issues, about 100 pages long and protected before the Council for master’s degree.
The main purpose of the dissertation is to study, reflect learning results, and also a scientific research project, showing serious, independent, exploratory and creative scientific labor. , the writer’s scientific ideas. The thesis is a scientific work, so it must be taken seriously and must meet the requirements: the thesis must have a scientific meaning and practical meaning; data and sources of citations must be accurate and reliable; coherent and accurate writing; presented properly and shows the writer has research methods.
To write a thesis, the following steps need to be taken:
- Select and name the thesis topic:
The dissertation topic may be suggested by the Faculty, the Department, the teachers or the students themselves but should not overlap with the previous research topics. It is better that students learn, think and propose research issues based on their interests, abilities, strengths, relationships … or their previously formed ideas.
Research ideas are often formed when: listening to lectures in class; Read books; exchange and debate with scientists and colleagues; practice, practice at agencies and companies; thinking against the common viewpoints; identify problems in actual operations; hear the complaints of others; go for a walk …
Based on research ideas, students will select and name the topic. To ensure the quality of the thesis, the topic must:
- Scientific significance: complementing the theory of science subjects; building new theoretical bases or clarifying some existing theoretical issues …; latest developments on research issues …
- There are practical values: solving problems, difficulties and problems in production, business, management …; building up arguments for socio-economic development programs of the branches and localities …;
- Feasibility: eligible for the completion of the topic, such as: information and documentary facilities; laboratory equipment, if needed; there are scientific instructors and other collaborators; have enough time …;
- In accordance with the interests and forte of the researcher.
Properly naming the topic is very important because the topic name clearly indicates the object and scope of the research. The object of the study answers the question of what to study, and the scope of the study clearly indicates the limitation of space, time and scale of the research problem. The title of the project must be short, neat, concise, least literal but contains the most information. The language used in the subject’s name must be clear and precise so that it can be understood in a single sense, not to create the ability to understand many meanings. Thesis topics should not be named with high uncertainty phrases about information, such as:
- Some thoughts about …
- Try talking about …
- About the problem …
- Contribute to …
The naming of the obscure topic above is only suitable for one article, not suitable for a scientific work, such as a dissertation, thesis and other scientific works. During the process of identifying the topic, students should consult their teachers or instructors.
2. Develop research proposal and plan:
2.1. Develop outline: On the basis of the title of the approved project, students determine the subjects, objectives and scope of research and set up the research outline. The research syllabus is also the composition of the thesis, including chapters and sections that reflect the object and scope of research from the beginning to the end logically. The principle to comply with when developing a syllabus is that the chapter names must match (show) the title of the topic; Big section names in the chapter must match the chapter name; Small section names must match the names of large sections … For a scientific thesis, research outline, in addition to the introduction and conclusion, usually consists of 3 (three) chapters. Chapter 1 often refers to general theoretical issues, such as: concepts, positions, roles, meanings, importance of research issues; Demand for products, potential for production and export … (if researching on export issues); Generalizing theories and doctrines related to research issues (for graduation thesis or master’s thesis) … Chapter 2 is often used to analyze the situation, the situation of the research problem, the original the cause of weaknesses, shortcomings … and chapter 3 outlines the views, directions, objectives or predictions of the development situation and proposes solutions and methods to solve problems. In each chapter, there should not be too many large items but it should be about 3 items. The chapters and sections of the doctoral thesis and master’s thesis are presented as follows:
Chapter 1: …………………
1.1.1. ……………… ..
1.1.2. ……………… ..
1.2. ……………… ..
1.3.1. ……………… ..
Chapter 2: ………………………….
2.2. ………………… ..
2.3. ………………… .. …
Chapter 3: …………………………..
For Graduation Practices or Graduation Essays … you can use Roman numerals I, II, III to replace 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. … The syllabus should not be elaborated too much, because in the course of the study there may be changes depending on the source of the material, the new findings of the author.
2.2. Developing research plan: Along with the outline, students must develop a research plan, clearly showing the content of the work and the completion time.
- Submit the outline to the instructor for comments:
Students meet a science instructor with a prepared outline for advice. Instructors can give suggestions to edit and supplement the outline to ensure the accuracy of the title, the correctness and completeness of the research content, the rationality and logic of the layout and calculation date of relevant scientific information …. On that basis, students and students repair and complete the outline.
- Collectibles, store documents, make a list of documents, do experiments …:
Resources related to research topics can be found in libraries, bookstores, in specialized journals, reports, scientific information, newspapers, via the internet, agencies, companies … through friends, acquaintances … In the process of collecting documents, they must be carefully recorded and archived, especially the sources of relevant documents and articles, such as: author’s name, journal title or newspaper. download, number, date, issue, year of publication … to create a list of documents and later on the List of references.
- Writing scientific thesis:
After having relatively complete documentation, on the basis of a detailed outline has been approved, a thesis can be started. This is best done on a computer, in the usual Vn-Times font, font size 13 or 14, which can start from the Preface or from chapter 1.
5.1. Contents of the thesis:
The thesis, no matter how the chapter is organized, must have basic parts and contents in order: main cover, sub-cover, table of contents, preface, chapters, conclusions, references , appendix, if available.
a. Primary cover and secondary cover: have exactly the same content and are written in order (top down): School name; name of Faculty, subject; Scientific thesis title (Graduation thesis, Graduation internship collection …); Title of the project; The writer’s name and the scientific guide (right corner); Place of implementation, year … The main cover is the outermost cardboard cover of different colors according to regulations (KLTN of Foreign Trade University: red cover, golden letter). Extra cover is the first page of the thesis.
b. Table of Contents: The table of contents consists of about 02 pages immediately after the sub-cover, clearly stating the names of the chapters and sections with the corresponding page position, enabling the reader to quickly review the main contents of the thesis and open reading the necessary items. . Do not write a more detailed table of contents to prevent multiple pages, but only a small section after a large item is enough.
c. Preface: For most types of essays, preface usually encapsulates in 1-2 pages, stating clearly the reasons for choosing the topic, purpose and objectives of the study; Research Methods; Object and scope of the study; The names of chapters and expected results, along with thanks to those who helped me in the process of making the thesis. Particularly for the master thesis and doctoral thesis, the preface is usually written in the form of items, such as: The urgency of the topic; Research goals and objectives; Research situation; Object and scope of the study ; Research Methods; New contributions of the thesis; Structure of the thesis.
d. Writing chapters: As mentioned above, the thesis is usually structured into three chapters with equal number of chapters to ensure the balance of the thesis. The content of the chapters should have conclusions from 7-10 lines on the issues mentioned in that chapter by phrases, such as: Summary, Overall, … Through the above analysis can draw conclusions …
e. Conclusion of the thesis: The conclusion of the thesis must be on a separate page, summarizing all the conclusions drawn from the study of the topic along with some of the most essential solutions, recommendations and projections. report the development trend, with a length of 1-2 pages. These are specific assertions or conclusions about key issues mentioned in all three chapters of the thesis that the author draws after studying, numbered 1, 2, 3 … or bulleted (-) without any comment. For example: After studying the topic, some following conclusions can be drawn: … These conclusions are a very important part of the dissertation, along with solutions and proposals, this is the conclusion research results of the author. Therefore, the author must spend a lot of time, thinking seriously to write this exact and specific conclusion. Need to distinguish Conclusion with Summary. The author of this article has met, in many essays, dissertations, instead of conclusions, the author summarizes the dissertation, thesis and commends himself with comments. In Conclusion, you should not say thanks because the thanks have been included in the Prologue or have a separate page such as in the master’s thesis or doctoral thesis.
f- References: References include all classics, textbooks, reference books, rules, resolutions, circulars, reports, articles … in different languages that the author has consulted when researching and having references in the thesis.
According to the Foreign Trade University regulations, the list of references must be recorded in the following order:
- References must be arranged separately in each language, in the order of Vietnamese, English, French, Russian (continuous numbering) … Documents in foreign languages must be kept verbatim;
- References in Vietnamese must be in alphabetical order of the author’s name, in foreign languages arranged according to the ABC of the author’s family. If the document is not named after the author, then the first letter of the agency that issued or published it.
Regarding how to cite references, for graduation thesis, the source of information must include the information of the author’s name or issuing agency; year of publication (in parentheses); the title of the book (in italics) or the title of the article (in quotation marks, without italics); publisher, publishing place (for books); journal title (italic), number (in brackets), page … (if it is an article).
Example of how to write as follows:
- Hoang Van Chau (2003), Transportation-Import-Export Forwarding, Science and Technology Publishing House, HCMC.
- Vo Nhat Thang (2002), “Responsibilities of forwarders when issuing FBL bills of lading”, Visaba Times, (42), p. 14-15.
- Dinh Xuan Trinh (2002), International payment in foreign trade, Education Publishing House, Hanoi.
The references numbered above must be cited in the thesis where necessary by using square brackets […] or using footnote, including the page number (if the reference is a book , curriculum).
For the master thesis and doctoral dissertation, the school now stipulates to cite references in the style of Harvard University, specifically:
The content of each source of material is presented in the following way: ordinal number, author’s name, work name (book / article / scientific research topic – this part is in italics), publisher / name magazine, year of publication / magazine and year of publication, reprint (if it is a book and if applicable), from page … – page … (if it is a magazine).
Examples of references are books: Pressman, Steven, 50 Typical Economists, Labor Publishing House, Hanoi 2003, (quoted Pressman 2003). For references are articles in specialized journals: Nguyen Van A, Discussion on competition policy, Journal of Economic Research, No. … May … / 2009, p. 55-60; (quoted Nguyen Van A 2009).
The citation of the source in the thesis and dissertation is done in the form of the author’s name and the year of publication right after the reference content; eg Pressman 2003, p. 18 (page number must be written when extracting verbatim); For citing sources from the journal, there is no need to write the page number, for example: Nguyen Van A 2009.
If citing sources from the site, only cite the names of authors and in the same way as the source of the journal. The list of websites (including the link address) is taken down to the end of the reference list.
g- Appendix: Appendixes are tables, figures, figures, diagrams, drawings, survey results, surveys … that can prove and illustrate the contents of the thesis if included in the thesis The text is not beautiful and taking up many pages should be included in the final section of the thesis and not count the page number. This appendix may also be numbered and must be numbered.
5.2. Style of scientific thesis:
Scientific thesis must be written in a precise, clear and coherent Vietnamese language. Different from the reportage, the scene description of the thesis must show the seriousness, simplicity, science. In the thesis, the researcher mainly gives, presents events, arguments, arguments, objectively, then analyzes, argues, proves to draw convincing conclusions, avoid expressing love and hate towards the object of study and avoid using many adjectives, comparisons, metaphors, etc. The text in the scientific thesis is mainly used in passive, so avoid using personal pronouns, like me, us, you … can instead use this author, writer, …
5.3. Form and typing method:
Scientific essays, from cover to content pages, must be typed and presented in a genuine, serious, A4-sized white paper, odorless with black ink. Absolutely do not add drawings on the cover pages, nor add lines or write the instructor’s name, author’s name at the top and bottom on the inner pages. The typefaces used must also be genuine, not glaring, colorful, gaudy, flying butterflies. The thesis is only typed on one side of the page, using VN-Times or VNI-Times, size 13 or 14, stretching line 1.5 lines, margins above 3 cm, margin below 3.5 cm (if beating page number below), left margin 3.5 cm, right margin 2 cm. Such a page is only about 27 lines.
- Defend the thesis
Masters thesis, doctoral thesis must protect before the Council signed by the Principal or Minister. The thesis or university graduation project may be protected or marked. At NTU from the academic year 2005-2005 (K40), the graduation thesis (KLTN) must be protected before the Council of 03 members. In order to protect the dissertation well, it is necessary to carry out the following tasks well:
6.1. Write a thesis summary:
Summary of a 24-page doctoral thesis (small format), reflecting honestly the main content of the thesis, is sent to scientists and agencies for comment. Summary of master thesis about 15 pages used in the protection session. Summary KLTN has a length of 8-10 pages written by students to present to the Council within 10 minutes. The requirements of the summary are brief, concise, highlighting the structure of the topic, highlighting the main contents of the thesis, emphasizing the necessary contents, drawn conclusions after studying the topic. talent along with solutions, proposals and recommendations. Before the protection session, students should present the test to make sure not to exceed 10 minutes.
6.2. Protection before the Council:
Students must present to the Council in a clear and coherent way (best not holding a reading paper), showing that they are well aware of the research problem, making sure not to exceed the allowed time. After listening to the presentation, Council members will comment and ask questions to test their knowledge and give marks. The evaluation score of the Council members will follow the criteria: the form of the thesis; citation and reference writing; theoretical and practical meaning of the topic; Research Methods; scientific content of the thesis; the presentation before the Council and answering students’ questions.
A dissertation is evaluated as good, not only must have content (scientific and practical value) but also a reasonable layout, balance, good form, presentation and typing, conclusion writing , quoting and recording the right references also means that the author knows how to study. In addition, new and topical topics, few researchers, writers who write have creative and independent ideas … are also highly appreciated.
In order to write well the essay, the writer must be diligent, hard-working, passionate in scientific research, always seeking, creative, thinking about research issues, as well as climbers who are not afraid of tired knees, The ferret walks on the bumpy roads of science to reach the peak.